And the ideal project of independent Kurdistan implies the unification of all four zones — Bakur, Mashud, Rozhava and Rozhilat (literally — North, South, West, East) — that is, Turkish, Iraqi, Syrian and Iranian territories inhabited by Kurds, but in the modern world such imaginary projects, as a rule, are far from their practical implementation.Obviously, the Iraqi Kurds, who have their own autonomy, had the greatest opportunities for building statehood. However, the author, who has repeatedly visited Iraqi Kurdistan, did not receive an adequate answer to the question of how Iraqi Kurds see future statehood. Discussions are ongoing about this — some see it as a broader autonomy, others suggest a republican type of government, and some even advocate the creation of a monarchy. The civil war that broke out in Iraqi Kurdistan in 1994 and ended in 1998 with the signing of a peace agreement between Masood Barzani (the Kurdish Democratic Party) and Jalal Talabani (the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan) with US mediation, is also additional confirmation of internal contradictions between the Kurds. Although the issues of internal self-government in Iraqi Kurdistan are now being resolved peacefully, the KDP is oriented towards Turkey and, in part, towards the United States, while the CPK towards Iran remains.
But in August, Turkey sent its troops into Syria, creating its own security zone and starting rapprochement with Russia. These events undermined the efforts of the PDS and their allies, and the current return of the Syrian armed forces to this zone and the Russian military police has severely limited any opportunities for real Kurdish sovereignty in Syria.Turkey is the country with the largest number of Kurds both in relation to the main Turkic population and in relation to the territory. Kurdistan Workers’ Party recognized as a terrorist organization in Turkey. Moreover, not all Kurds in Turkey agree with the program and activities of this party. Although the ruling Justice and Development Party does not have an objectively inclusive project for all Kurds. The rights of the Kurds are defended by the People’s Democratic Party (Halkların Demokratik Partisi). In fact, this is a coalition of various left-wing parties and trade unions, which includes the Kurdish Party of Peace and Democracy. Through this structure, the Kurds legally lobbied for their interests. However, any attempts by separatism or any hint of relations with the PKK are harshly suppressed by the state. In 2016, the Kurdish leaders of this party, including the head of Salyakhetidin Demirtash, were arrested on charges of aiding terrorists. At the same time, Ankara rejected the accusations and demands of the ECHR in this case. And in August 2019, three pro-Kurdish town governors from this party were removed from their posts.